Kerala PSC Exam Syllabus Scientific Officer (Chemistry)
Structure and bonding in molecules- Chemical periodicity- Chemistry of Hydrogen and s block elements- Chemistry of p block elements and d block elements- Extractive chemistry of various metals of commercial importance- Chemistry of Nontransition elements like Glass
Theories of acids and bases- HSAB concept- solvent effects, linear free energy relationship – mechanism and methods of determination, super acids – Reactions in Non-aqueous solventsProtic and Aprotic solvents- Chemistry of Isopoly and Heteropoly acids ; Silicon-Oxygen compounds; Zeolites ; Xenon and Krypton compounds including their organic and coordination compounds
Synthesis, reactions, structure and bonding in Sulphur-Nitrogen compounds ; SulphurPhosphorus compounds ; Phosphorous-Nitrogen compounds ; Boron – Nitrogen compounds ; Boron hydrides; Organoboranes; Carboranes and metallocarboranes- STYX and WADE rules
Chemistry of Lanthanides and Actinides including their extraction and applications as well as their coordination complexes and spectral behaviour
Theories of Coordination Chemistry in detail: Werner’s theory – Crystal field theory – Ligand field theory – Molecular orbital theory- Stereochemistry of coordination compounds- Jahn Teller distortion- Detailed study of Stability and reactions of metal complexes- Electron transfer, Substitution and Photochemical reactions and their kinetics
Construction of energy level diagrams. Correlation diagram. Method of descending symmetry. Term symbols; Correlation diagrams for dn and d10 ions in octahedral and tetrahedral fields ; Orgel and Tanabe-Sugano diagrams. Symmetry and Selection rules for electronic spectra , IR and Raman Theory of Electronic, IR, NMR, ESR and Mossbaur spectra of complexes. Different aspects of magnetic properties of complexes and their determination.
Spectroscopic Methods in Inorganic Chemistry- Structural elucidation of coordination compounds containing the following molecules/ ions as ligands- NH3, H2O, CO, NO, OH– , SO2 – , CN– , SCN– , NO – , NO – , CH3COO– and X– (X=halogen). changes in ligand vibration on coordination with metal ions.- CD and ORD spectra of metal complexes- NMR of metal nuclides with emphasis on 11B, 31P and 19F NMR.- ESR spectra: Application to Cu(II) complexes and inorganic free radicals such as PH4, F – and [BH ]– . Mossbauer Spectroscopy: Application of the technique to the studies of iron and tin complexes
Nomenclature, synthesis, structure, properties and bonding of organo-metallic compounds – metal carbonyls and cyanides – Complexes with linear π donor ligands: Olefins, acetylenes, dienes and allyl complexes. Complexes with cyclic π donors: Cyclopentadiene, benzene complexes. Structure and bonding of ferrocene and dibenzenechromium complexes – Metal –Metal bonds and metal atom clusters. Tri , Tetra and hexa nuclear clusters, Isoelectronic and isolobal relationships, Low nuclearity and High nuclearity carbonyl clusters (LNCCs and HNCCs). Cubane Clusters, Chalcogenide Clusters, Chevrel Phases. Zintl Anions and Cations – Capping Rule Catalysis by organo metallic compounds and metal clusters- hydrogenation, hydroformylation and polymerization.
Essential and trace metal elements in biological systems, . Role of Iron,Calcium, Copper, Lithium, Aluminium, Magnesium and other metals in biological systems structure and functions of biological membranes, mechanism of ion transport across membranes, sodium- potassium pump. – Role and effects : Coenzymes, Cytochromes, chlorophylls and hormones. Photosynthesis, porphyrin ring system, chlorophyll, PS I and PS II. Synthetic model for photosynthesis. Inorganic medicinal chemistry. Metals in medicine.
Nuclear reactions – structure and stability- Magic numbers – Detailed study of different nuclear models- radio active equilibria and equations of radioactive decay and growth – Nuclear reactions: Direct nuclear reactions, heavy ion induced nuclear reactions, photonuclear reactions. Neutron captures cross section and critical size -Applications of nuclear reactions- fission and fusion; neutron activation analysis – counting techniques.
Solid State Chemistry: Crystal symmetry- Point groups and space groups. Miller indices and Bravais Lattices- Close packed structures: BCC, FCC and HCP. Voids. Coordination number.
X-ray diffraction by crystals: Applications and calculations using Bragg’s equation and indexing methods. Different types of Crystal defects and consequences
Electronic structure of solids. Different theories about conductors, insulators and semiconductors and their applications. Doping and band gap adjustments. AX, AX2, AmX2, ABX3, Spinels and Inverse spinel structures. Structure and theories of Liquids- Liquid crystals and their applications.
Temperature dependence of conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility in semiconductors – Superconductivity, Photoconductivity Photovoltaic effect.
Colour in inorganic solids. – Dielectric properties. Dielectric materials. Ferroelectricity, pyroelectricity, piezoelectricity and ionic conductivity. Applications of ferro, piezo and pyroelectrics.
Inorganic Advanced materials : Solid Electrolytes: Mixed oxides, cationic, anionic solid electrolytes, mixed ionic-electronic conductors- Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Rechargeable battery materials- Solid state chemistry of metal nitrides and fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry and metal-rich phases.- Inorganic pigments, Inorganic phosphorsMolecular materials and fullerides, basic idea of molecular materials chemistry like One dimensional metals, Molecular magnets and Inorganic liquid crystals.
Nomenclature of organic compounds – Cyclic, fused polycyclic and bridged polycyclic hydrocarbons, bridged and fused hydrocarbon systems, Spirocyclic hydrocarbon systems, Heterocyclic systems containing Nitrogen and Oxygen.
Molecular symmetry and chirality, axial chirality, planar chirality and helicity, relative configuration, stereochemical nomenclature, R and S, E and Z. Stereo chemistry of biphenyl and allenes – Topicity and prostereo isomerism -asymmetric synthesis. Axial stereochemistry: atropisomerism and its designation – biphenyls, allenes, spiranes- M and P configurations. Stereoselectivity: enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity & stereoconvergence. Stereospecific and stereoselective synthesis. stereotopicity & stereoprojections. Prochiral centre and prochiral faces
Pro R and Pro S, Re face and Si face, Importance of prochirality in biological systems. Geometrical isomerism . , Conformational analysis in acyclic and cyclic systems , Application of Cram’s rule, Felkin–Ahn model
Basic concepts of Organic reactions – Electron displacement effects –Aromaticity and antiaromaticity. Non aromatic, homoaromatic, hetero and non–benzenoid aromatic systems. Aromaticity of annulenes, mesoionic compounds, metallocenes, cyclic carbocations and carbanions.
Mechanism and applications of common substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Stereochemistry and factors affecting Aliphatic and Aromatic SN1 and SN2 reactions. SN1′, SN2′, SNi SNAr and benzyne mechanisms – NGP and Nonclassical carbocations- Generation and reactions of Nitrenes, Carbenes and free radicals like Triphenyl methyl, TEMPO, Dibenzoyl peroxide, NBS , Tributyl Tinhydride and AIBN. – Chlorination of alkane, addition of HX, SRN1 mechanism- Acyloin condensation, Alkyne coupling reactionsReimer-Tiemann, Vilsmeier-Haack reactions. Mitsunobu reaction and Chichibabin reactions.
Mechanism of Addition of H2O, X2, HX, and boranes to C=C systems- Cis and trans hydroxylation of cycloalkenes- Mechanism and applications of Michael addition and Robinson Annulation- Aldol condensation- Stork enamine, Cannizzaro, Perkin, Ritter, Stobbe, Knoevenagel, Darzen, Reformatsky and benzoin condensations- Grignard, Mannich, Thorpe reactions and Dieckmann condensation
Mechanism and regio and stereo aspects of E1, E2 and E1cb reactions in cyclic and acyclic systems. Hoffmann and Saytzeff elimination- Elimination Vs substitution- Mechanism and applications of Shapiro reaction, Peterson and Julia olefination, Wittig and Wittig – Horner reactions; Chugaev reaction and Cope eliminations- Sodium in liquid ammonia and Lindlars catalyst in conversion of alkynes to alkenes
Mechanism with evidence of Wagner – Meerwein, Pinacol, Demjanov, Hofmann, Curtius, Schmidt, Lossen, Beckmann, Fries, Hofmann–Martius, Dienone–phenol, Benzilic acid, Benzidine, Favorskii, Stevens and Wolf rearrangement.
Oxidation and Reduction reactions in organic synthesis- Reduction using boranes, hindered boranes and derivatives- NaBH4, and LiAlH4, DIBAL-H, tri-n-butyltin hydride, diimide, and aluminium alkoxide. Birch reduction, Clemmensen reduction and Wolff – Kishner reduction, Huang – Minlon modification, Rosenmund reduction – allylic and benzylic oxidation, Sharpless epoxidation, oxidation using SeO2, manganese (IV) oxide, lead tetraacetate, ozone, peracids, DDQ, silver carbonate and Cr(VI) reagents. Jones oxidation, Swern oxidation, Moffatt oxidation, Sommelet reaction. Applications of HIO4, OsO4 and mCPBA
Linear Free Energy Relations, The Hammett equation and its applications. Significance of sigma (σ) and rho (ρ) reactions with negative and positive ρ, low and high ρ, abnormal Hammet plot, Taft equation. Hammet plot and applications- Primary, secondary, inverse kinetic isotope effects. Salt effects and special salt effects in SN reactions
Retrosynthetic analysis and disconnection approach in organic synthesis- Olefin metathesis- Grubbs’ catalysts. Umpolung concept-1,3-Dithiane, benzoin condensation. Heck, Negishi, Sonagashira, Kumada, Stille coupling and Suzuki coupling
Use of various organic, inorganic and organometallic reagents in organic synthesisGrignard reagents, Alkyl lithiums, Lithium Dialkylcuprates, Alkynyl copper reagents, Tebbe reagent etc. Use of various protecting groups in peptide synthesis. Phase transfer catalysis and its applications.
Photochemical processes. Singlet and triplet states and their reactivity, Jablonski diagram, Energy transfer, sensitization and quenching. Photoreactions of carbonyl compounds, enes, dienes and arenes. Patterno-Buchi and Barton reactions, Hofmann- Löffler- Freytag reaction, photo-Fries and Di-π methane, di- π methane rearrangements. Applications of photochemistry.
Classification of pericyclic reactions, FMO, Correlation diagram, Mobius and Huckel theory of electrocyclic and cyclo addition reactions- Stereo and region selectivity and industrial applications of Diels Alder reaction, 1,3–Dipolar cycloaddition and Sigmatropic rearrangements
Chemistry of Natural Products : Terpenes, steroids, alakaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, prostoglandins, hormones and enzymes.
Combinatorial organic synthesis, introduction, methodology, automation, solid supported and solution phase synthesis, study of targeted or focused libraries and small molecule libraries. Application of Drug design and development- various steps
Fundamentals of polymerization – structure – property relationship of polymers and polynucleotides- Protein sequencing by Edmans method.
Protein denaturation – Synthesis of stereo regular polymers. Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Polymers in organic synthesis – supports, reagents and catalysts. Biodegradable polymers biopolymers
Spectrocopic methods in Organic chemistry- Applications of UV, IR, H1NMR, C13NMR and Mass Spectroscopy – 2D NMR techniques – NOE, DEPT, and 2D techniques such as COSYHSQC, HMQC and HMBC. Spectral interpretation and structural elucidation. Solving of structural problems on the basis of numerical and spectrum based data. ORD and CD – theory and applications
Gaseous State- Maxwell’s distribution and equation- Transport phenomena- Chapman equation- Equations of state of real gases- vander Waals, Virial and other equations- Inter molecular forces and consequences.
Electronic Structure of Solids – Crystal Symmetry – Theories of Solids – Properties of Solids : Electrical, Magnetical and Optical – Crystal defects. Structure and Theories of LiquidsXRD of liquids- Theories and calculation of Surface tension and Viscosity – Liquid Crystals and their applications
Laws of Thermodynamics – Entropy and its dependence on variables of a systemEquations of state- Euler’s relation, Gibbs and Helmholtz equations and energies. Maxwells relations- Gibbs Duhem equation- Partial Molar Quantities- Chemical potential- FugacityActivity coefficients. Thermodynamics of Solutions – Duhem Marghules equation- vant Hoff’s equations, isochore and isotherm. Thermodynamics of irreversible process – Fundamentals and advances in the study of Phase Equilibria – Two and Three Component Systems
Statistical thermodynamics – Molecular Partition Function – Quantum Statistics – Heat capacities of Solids and Gases- Relationship between partition functions and thermodynamic properties, Sackur-Tetrode equation. The principle of equi-partition of energy
Chemical equilibrium, Law of mass action, Transformation of the equilibrium expressions. Statistical derivation.
The gas-solid interphase, types of adsorption. Monolayer and multilayer adsorption – Adsorption Isotherms Heat of adsorption and its determination .-Adsorption from solutions -Determination of surface area of solids-Harkins–Jura absolute method, point B method, Langmuir method and BET method- – Principles of LEED, SEM, TEM, ECSA, Photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy
Electrochemistry and Ionics: Activity and activity coefficient of electrolytes, determination of activity coefficient.- Electrodes and Electrochemical Cells – Nernst, Debye-Huckel, Omsager Equations – Over potentials: Butler-Volmer equation. Tafel and Nernst equation, Tafel plot and its significance – Electrolytic Polarization- Fuel cells: H2-O2, zinc-air and solid oxide fuel cellsTheory and applications of electro Analytical Methods : Potentiometry, Polarography , Coulometry, Conductometry, Cyclic Voltametry, Stripping Voltametry and Amperometry- Colloids – Zeta Potential – Electrokinetic Phenomena
Basic principles of Kinetics – Kinetics of Complex reactions – steady state approximation -Theories of Reaction Rates – Arrhenius equation – fast reactions and methods of study. Reactions in solution: Factors affecting reaction rates in solutions, effect of dielectric constant and ionic strength, cage effect, Bronsted-Bjerrum equation – Kinetic effects: Primary and secondary kinetic salt effect, influence of solvent on reaction rates, significance of volume of activation, linear free energy relationship. Hammet equation and Taft equation.
Catalysis: Mechanism and theories of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Bimolecular surface reactions. Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism. Enzyme catalysis.
Classical mechanics and its limitations –need of quantum mechanics, de Broglie relation and its experimental proof, uncertainty principle and its consequences- Formulation of Quantum Mechanics – Postulates of quantum mechanics- Application of Quantum mechanics to Exactly Solvable Model Problems- Translational motion- Quantum mechanical tunnelling- Vibrational motion- and Rotational motion –SHO, Rigid Rotor- Legendre polynomials and associated Legendre functions Approximation Methods and Chemical Bonding – Hydrogen like Atoms -Multi Electron Systems – Angular Momentum – SCF and variation method – MO diagram of homo nuclear diatomic molecules Li2, Be2, B2, C2, O2 and F2 and hetero nuclear diatomic molecules LiH CO, NO and HF
Wave functions for multi electron systems, wave equation for multi electron systems, symmetric and anti- symmetric wave functions, Pauli’s anti-symmetry principle, and the postulate of spin- Spin orbitals. Spin- orbit coupling. Vector atom model-Term symbols, selection rules and exp anation of spectral lines of hydrogen atom- Applications- Chemical Bonding in Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules
Computational Chemistry – Computational methods : ab initio, Semi Empirical methods – Molecular Mechanics
Quantum statistics- Bose-Einstein statistics, Thermodynamic probability- Maxwell Boltzmann, Bose Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics- Quantum theory of heat capacity – calculation of heat capacity of gases- Dulong and Petit’s law, Kopp’s law; limitations.- Einstein theory and Debye theory of heat capacity
Symmetry elements and symmetry operation. Basic principles of Group Theory – Character Tables – . Point groups and their systematic identification.- Multiplication of operations – Setting up of character table of C2v, C3v and C2h groups –Applications to MO Theory, Chemical Bonding and Spectroscopy
Electronic Spectroscopy of Atoms – Basic principles of Molecular spectroscopy: Microwave, Infrared, Raman, Electronic, NMR, ESR, Raman and Mossbaur
Analytical, Environmental, Material and Supramolecular chemistry
Evaluation of analytical data: Accuracy and precision. Standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation. Student ‘t’ test, ‘Q’ test, and ‘F’ test. Confidence limits- Errors and their minimisation- Significant figures- Correlation analysis- Calculation of R by method of least squares
Theory and practice of : Quantitative and Qualitative analysis- Inorganic analysisOrganic analysis and preparations – physical chemistry experiments (Post graduate level)
Applications of TG, DTA and DSC in the study of metal complexes, ceramics and polymers.
Theory of chromatographic techniques -Column, TLC, Paper, GC, HPLC and ion exchange chromatographic techniques. Solvent extraction. Extraction using supercritical liquid CO2, Craig’s technique of liquid-liquid extraction
Twelve principles of green chemistry and issues in sustainable chemistry – Green synthesis – Application of Phase Transfer Catalysts -Green Reactions- Applications of Microwave and sonication in the synthesis of organic compounds.
Chemistry of Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere.
Nanostructures – ID, 2D and 3D structures – Synthesis and applications of nanomaterials..
Chemistry behind Piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, halochromic, chromogenic, electrochromic, thermochromic, magnetocaloric and thermoelectric materials Supramolecular chemistry – Molecular recognition : Synthetic Receptors, Cyclodextrin, Calixiranes, Cyclophanes, Crown Ethers- Drug design and Drug action.
NOTE: – It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post may also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the topics above may be covered in the question paper