Introduction to Animal Husbandry
Livestock statistics – Current population status of cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, chicken, duck, turkey, quail. Contribution of livestock to Indian Economy .Current production status of livestock sector – Impact of livestock sector on Indian economy
Common terminologies of Animal Husbandry – Different terms associated with the husbandry of cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, chicken, duck, turkey and quail.
Farming systems – Farming systems (mixed, diversified, specialised, organic, integrated) and types of Dairy farming (family cow ,commercial ,corral, high-tech).
Advantages and disadvantages of rearing animals and birds .
Breeds of Livestock
Definition of breed , class, variety and strain.
Comparison of Indian and exotic breeds of cattle
Classification and comparison of breeds according to origin and utility .
Breeds of cattle – Origin, breed characteristics and salient features of Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir, Deoni, Hallikar, Kangayam, Amrit Mahal, Kankrej, Hariana, Tharparkar, Vechur, Kasaragod dwarf, Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss
Breeds of buffalo – Origin, breed characteristics and salient features of Murrah, Surti, Jaffarabadi ,Mehsana, Nili Ravi
Breeds of goats and sheep – Origin, breed characteristics and salient features of Malabari, Attapady black, Beetel, Jamunapari, barbari, Saanen, Alpine, Boer, Kashmiri, Marwari, merino etc.
Breeds of pigs – Origin, breed characteristics and salient features of large white Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Berkshire, Hampshire
Breeds of chicken – Origin, breed characteristics and salient features of White leghorn, Black Minorca, RIR, New Hampshire, Australorp, Plymouth rock, Cornish, Brahma, Cochin, Aseel, Kadaknath, Naked neck, Austro-white, Gramapriya, Athulya, Giriraja .Classification of fowls based on geographical distribution with class characteristics (American,English,Mediterranean,Asiatic) Breeds of duck, turkey, quail – Origin, breed characteristics and salient features of Muscovy, White Pekin, Indian runner, Khakhi Campbell, Chara, Chemballi, Broad breasted bronze, Beltsville small white, Japanese quail, bobwhite quail
Identification of Animals and Age Determination of Cattle
Comparison of different methods of identification commonly used in animals .Commonly used methods of identification in animals and birds – Hot iron branding, Chemical branding, Freeze branding, Tattooing, Tagging, Ear notching, Wing/leg bands, wing badges for birds, Electronic chips/transponders.
Determination of age in cattle – Importance of age determination in cattle – Dental formula in cattle (permanent and deciduous) – Age determination by looking at dentition – Age determination by looking horn rings
Restraining of Animals
Approaching the animal – Animal behaviour – Precautions while approaching the animal
Restraining – Purpose of restraining . Method of Restraining of head and neck Method of Restraining of fore and hind limbs .Whole body restraining – Precautions for casting – Reuff’s method of casting – Alternate method of casting .
Instruments used for controlling animals – Instruments used for controlling head and neck, limbs and whole body .
Anatomy and Physiology
Basics of anatomy and physiology of cattle, goat, pig, dog ,poultry- Definitions – Anatomical Peculiarities (bone, RBC, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach)
Body parts of cattle – Different body parts (regions, body cavities, joints, bones)
Normal physiological values of animals – Significance of normal physiological values – Normal range of values in cattle, buffalo, goat, pig, dog and chicken (temperature, pulse, respiration, age of puberty, rumen motility, gestation period, life span). Measuring the most important normal physiological values of cattle – Measuring Pulse – Recording Respiration – Recording rectal temperature – Rumen motility – Different conditions in which the normal values change
Structure and function of ruminant stomach – Structure of ruminant stomach – Process of ruminant microbial digestion. Esophageal groove and its significance.Difference in digestion of ruminant and non ruminant stomach
Structure and function of reproductive system of cattle – Detailed structure and function of bovine female and male reproductive System – Structure of bovine spermatozoa. Hormonal regulation of reproduction and oestrus cycle – Hormonal interplay of female reproduction – Hormonal interplay of male reproduction – Sexual maturity and puberty – Estrus cycle and heat signs
Structure and function of mammary gland – Structure of udder – Mechanism of milk production – Hormonal role in lactation – Peak production and drying up – methods of drying – Milking methods – Hand milking-Machine milking.
Rearing and Housing of Livestock
Establishment of livestock farm – Requirements for dairy and poultry farms
Systems of rearing for cattle • Free range system • Intensive system • Semiintensive system .
Systems of rearing for poultry • Free range system • Intensive system (deep litter and cage system) • .Backyard rearing of poultry. Semi-intensive system.
Housing of cattle and poultry – Requirements and dimensions of a standard cattle shed and poultry house
Manure and waste disposal – Collection, storage and disposal of manure – Vermicomposting – Biogas plant
Husbandry of Goats
Advantages of goat rearing .Systems of rearing goats .
Care and management of different age groups of goats – Housing requirements of goats – Feeding of goats – Care and management of kids – Care and management of does and bucks – Care and management of pregnant does – Care and management of lactating does.
Breeding and selection of dairy goats – Selection methods – Breeding methods.
Diseases of goats – Bacterial, viral, metabolic diseases of goats and control measures (Tetanus, CCPP,Enterotoxaemia, PPR,Lactic acidosis)
Anatomy and physiology of poultry
Digestive system- mouth, oesophagus, stomach, liver and pancreas, small intestine, caeca, cloaca
Reproductive system – Male and female
Respiratory system- syrinx, airsacs – Skin and feathers – types of feathers
Egg formation – Physiology of egg formation
Effect of light on egg formation
Moulting and bleaching – Definition – Relation with egg production
Breeding and Reproduction in Animals
Basic concepts in breeding – Genotype and phenotype
Selection and breeding methods – Random selection, Individual selection, Family selection, Pedigree selection, Progeny testing, Inbreeding, Out-breeding, Methods of cross breeding,species hybridization,grading up
Artificial insemination (A.I) in animals – Purpose , limitations of A.I – Semen collection and examination – Semen extenders and preservation (metods of evaluation,types of preservation and diluents)–Insemination – Familiarization of equipment used for A.I – Heat detection – Technique of A.I in cattle (Recto vaginal method) – Speculum method for small animals .
Pregnancy and parturition – Basic concepts of gestation period, fertilization and placentation – Pregnancy diagnosis – Stages of parturition and signs of calving – Difficult calving (dystocia) – Involution of uterus, service period, inter-calving period, dry period.
Embryo transfer technology – Uses of embryo transfer technology – Method of embryo transfer Technology
Infertility in cattle – Concepts of infertility and sterility – Causes of infertility – Prevention of infertility
Care and Management of Cattle
Care and management of new born calves – Importance of colostrum feeding – Artificial respiration – Cutting of umbilical cord – Weaning – Feeding of calves – Dehorning – Deworming – Castration
Effect of climate on animals – Homeostasis – Critical temperature – Summer management
Herd replacement – Culling and replacement – Methods of culling and replacement
Principles of Feeding in cattle
Important nutrients required for animals – Water, Protein, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Vitamins, Minerals – their function.Important concepts of feed formulation – Proximate principles like Digestible crude protein (D.C.P), metabolizable energy (M.E), total digestible nutrients (T.D.N) etc.
B.I.S specifications of feed – Feed mixing
Different feed ingredients and preservation of fodder – Concentrate feed ingredients – Roughages – Unconventional feed stuff – Leguminous fodder (cow pea, subabul) – Cultivation details of different fodder grasses (Guinea, Napier, para, congo signal) – Preserved fodder (Silage, Hay, Straw) – Nutrient enrichment of straw – commercial feed for cattle (TMR feed, by pass protein feed) Thumb rules for feeding animals – Maintenance ration for each category of animals – Production ration for lactating animal – Pregnancy ration – Ration for draught animals
Definition of health and disease – Signs of health .
Natural defense mechanisms – Functions of different body parts in preventing disease .Routes of infection and classification of diseases – Different ways in which micro-organisms enter animal body – Types of diseases
Common diseases of animals – Etiology, Important symptoms and control measures of Bacterial diseases, Viral diseases, Metabolic diseases, Parasitic diseases – Phyto and chemical toxicity in cattle. Control of diseases – Treatment – Disinfection – Vaccination – Quarantine – Disposal of dead animals
Advantages and disadvantages of pig farming
Housing requirements of swine – general guidelines of housing – space requirements for housing piglets, boar, sow, breeding animals
Age wise management of pigs (feeding,breeding and management of boar,gilts, sow ,pregnant sows ,farrowing sows and piglets ,growing and finishing pigs) -Selection criteria for breeding boar.
Introduction to Poultry Husbandry
Poultry related terms- Poultry, broiler, chick, grower, lay er
External morphology of chicken
Scientific names of different species of poultry – Chicken, duck, turkey, quail
Trends in poultry Industry- Current scenario of poultry industry in Kerala and India – Merits and demerits of poultry rearing
Feeds and feeding of poultry
BIS standards for poultry feeds – BIS standards of crude protein and metabolisable energy for broiler and layer chicken feeds
Poultry feed ingredients – Common ingredients used for the formulation of poultry feed
Feeding systems – Adlibitum feeding – Restricted feeding – Mash feeding – Pelleted feeding – Phase feeding
Feed efficiency and feed additives – Definitions – Feed efficiency in layers and broilers
Feed additives : Nutritive and non nutritive
Feeders and waterers – Different types of feeders and waterers
Feed requirement for chicken – Average requirement of total feed for chicks, growers, layers and broilers
Management of chicken
Management of chicks – Brooding – types of brooding, brooder set up,Brooder management, debeaking, dubbing and sexing of chicks
Management of growers- Space requirement and general management
Management of layers – Summer management-Factors influencing egg production – Culling of layer birds (differentiating good and poor layers), Standards of egg production, Managemental practices for producing good quality eggs .
Management of breeders – Mating methods, Artificial insemination in chicken – Trap nesting Management of broilers – General guidelines for broiler management.
Selection of eggs and Hatchery management
Structure of egg – Yolk, Albumen, shell membranes, shell
Abnormal eggs – Double yolked egg, an egg within an egg, pale egg, soft shelled egg, blood spot, meat spot
Candling and grading of eggs – method of candling and Grade as per quality
Selection of hatching eggs- Size, shape, shell quality and internal quality
Incubation -Natural incubation, Artificial incubation, Management of incubator,Types of incubator,Parts of incubator, Physical requisites for incubation,Incubation period of various species of poultry
Hatchery operations – Collection of eggs, selection , fumigation, candling, setting, transfer, taking out of hatch, identification, sexing, vaccination, dubbing, debeaking, packing and despatch of chicks
Diseases of poultry
Bacterial diseases of chicken – Pasteurellosis – Pullorum disease
Viral diseases of chicken – New castle disease (NCD) – Fowl pox – Marek’s disease (MD) – Infectious bursal disease (IBD) – Avian influenza
Fungal diseases of chicken – Aspergillosis
Protozoan diseases of chicken – Coccidiosis
Parasitic diseases – Endoparasites – Round worm infection (Ascaridia galli), Caecal worm infection – Ectoparasites – Lice, mites and ticks infestation
Nutritional deficiency diseases – Rickets – Vitamin A deficiency – Crazy Chick disease – Curled toe paralysis
Prevention of diseases – Treatment – Vaccination – Litter management – Disinfection – Deworming – Fumigation – Biosecurity measures – Screening tests-
Hatchery management for disease prevention
Rearing of duck, turkey and quail
Husbandry of ducks – Advantages of duck rearing – Housing, feeding and management of ducks –Incubation- Sex differentiation
Diseases of ducks and health care – Pasteurellosis -Duck plague – Duck hepatitis – Aflatoxicosis
Husbandry of Turkey – Housing, feeding and management of Turkey – Sex differentiation. Diseases of turkey and health care – Pasteurellosis – Black head disease
Husbandry of quail – Advantages of quail rearing – Housing , feeding and management of quail – Sex differentiation. Diseases of quail and health care – Quail enteritis
Milk and milk products
Nutritive value of milk – Water, fat, protein, lactose, ash.
BIS standards of milk and milk products – Cow milk, buffalo milk, goat milk, toned milk, double toned milk, ice cream, whole milk powder, table butter, ghee.
Preservation of milk – Pasteurization, sterilization, chilling .
Types of milk commercially available – Toned milk, double toned milk, Homogenized milk, Condensed milk
Preparation of various types of milk products – Acid Coagulated products-Paneer – Concentrated products – Khoa, Gulab jamun – Fermented products -Dahi,Cheese – Fat rich products – Ghee, Cream – Frozen products – Ice cream- Byproducts from milk – Butter milk, Whey, skim milk
Wholesome milk production
Measures for clean milk production – Sources of contamination and hygienic measures
Adulterants of milk – Starch, Cane sugar, Water –Tests used for detection of adulteration.
NOTE: – It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post may also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the topics above may be covered in the question paper